What are sinuses?
The sinuses are empty, hollow, air filled spaces in the human skull. These spaces make the skull light, and insulate the skull. During taking, voice / sound resonates in these air filled cavities. There are four pairs of sinuses.

  • frontal sinuses (in the forehead)
  • maxillary sinuses (behind the cheek bones)
  • ethmoid sinuses (between the eyes)
  • sphenoid sinuses (behind the eyes)

These sinuses are lines internally by a mucosa. This has tiny hair embedded which help to trap and sweep out bacteria and pollutants.

What are sinuses?
The sinuses are empty, hollow, air filled spaces in the human skull. These spaces make the skull light, and insulate the skull. During taking, voice / sound resonates in these air filled cavities. There are four pairs of sinuses.

  • frontal sinuses (in the forehead)
  • maxillary sinuses (behind the cheek bones)
  • ethmoid sinuses (between the eyes)
  • sphenoid sinuses (behind the eyes)

These sinuses are lines internally by a mucosa. This has tiny hair embedded which help to trap and sweep out bacteria and pollutants.

What is sinusitis?
Sinusitis is the inflammation of the mucosal lining of one or more of the sinuses. The nasal passage is also concurrently inflamed during an attack of sinusitis.

What are the types of sinusitis?
Acute sinusitis which lasts for less than 4 weeks
Chronic sinusitis which lasts for more than 3 months.

How and why does sinusitis happen?
The sinuses are in direct communication with the nose and throat, via the nasopharynx. The sinuses have no infections generally, but if a person gets a cold or sore throat, this infection whether bacteria or virus travels to the sinuses, infecting the mucosal lining. This leads to blockage of the sinuses, infecting the mucosal lining. This leads to blockage of the sinuses and secretions accumulate, which facilitates growth of bacteria.

What conditions predispose to sinusitis?

  • Viral infections such as the common cold
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • mechanical obstruction as seen secondary to foreign bodies, nasal polyps
  • Immunodeficiency disease.

What are the symptoms of sinusitis?

  • Cold with pus like discharge from the nose
  • Blocked nose
  • Headache with is exacerbated by head movements, leading forward etc.
  • Fever may also be present
  • Pain in the teeth, if maxillary sinuses are affected
  • Ear fullness
  • Decreased sense of smell

Which tests can help in the diagnosis of sinusitis?

  • Generally tests are not necessary for diagnosing sinusitis. However in chronic sinusitis special tests are needed
  • X-ray skull or CT scanning proves useful at times.

Medical treatment of sinusitis

  • Nose drops to decrease the mucosal edema. They should not be used for more than 3 days to prevent rebound congestion
  • Mucolytics or medicines to thin the secretions can be used
  • Antibiotics are useful in certain situations
  • Humidifier/ vaporizer/ steam inhalation helps keep secretions moist and loose.

Surgical treatment of sinusitis

If medical management is not effective, sinus surgery can correct the problem. Before taking decision for Sinus Surgery CT scan of nose and paranasal air sinuses is mandatory. The basic endoscopic surgical procedure is performed under local or general anesthesia. The patient returns to normal activities within four days. The full recovery takes about four weeks. The surgery enlarges the natural opening to the sinuses without harming the tiny hair or cilia. The procedure removes areas of obstruction, resulting in the normal flow of mucus.

What can one do at home?

  • Home care for sinusitis helps open the sinuses.
  • Plenty of water and beverages such as hot tea are advocated.
  • Medicines to relieve pain
  • Steam inhalation as follows
  • Heat water in vessel
  • Remove it from the flame
  • Inhale the steam for about 10 minutes
  • Repeat 2-4 times a day

Sinusitis is the inflammation of the mucosal lining of one or more of the sinuses. The nasal passage is also concurrently inflamed during an attack of sinusitis.

What are the types of sinusitis?

Acute sinusitis which lasts for less than 4 weeks
Chronic sinusitis which lasts for more than 3 months.

How and why does sinusitis happen?

The sinuses are in direct communication with the nose and throat, via the nasopharynx. The sinuses have no infections generally, but if a person gets a cold or sore throat, this infection whether bacteria or virus travels to the sinuses, infecting the mucosal lining. This leads to blockage of the sinuses, infecting the mucosal lining. This leads to blockage of the sinuses and secretions accumulate, which facilitates growth of bacteria.

What conditions predispose to sinusitis?

  • Viral infections such as the common cold
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • mechanical obstruction as seen secondary to foreign bodies, nasal polyps
  • Immunodeficiency disease.

What are the symptoms of sinusitis?

  • Cold with pus like discharge from the nose
  • Blocked nose
  • Headache with is exacerbated by head movements, leading forward etc.
  • Fever may also be present
  • Pain in the teeth, if maxillary sinuses are affected
  • Ear fullness
  • Decreased sense of smell

Which tests can help in the diagnosis of sinusitis?

  • Generally tests are not necessary for diagnosing sinusitis. However in chronic sinusitis special tests are needed
  • X-ray skull or CT scanning proves useful at times.

Medical treatment of sinusitis

  • Nose drops to decrease the mucosal edema. They should not be used for more than 3 days to prevent rebound congestion
  • Mucolytics or medicines to thin the secretions can be used
  • Antibiotics are useful in certain situations
  • Humidifier/ vaporizer/ steam inhalation helps keep secretions moist and loose.

Surgical treatment of sinusitis

If medical management is not effective, sinus surgery can correct the problem. Before taking decision for Sinus Surgery CT scan of nose and paranasal air sinuses is mandatory. The basic endoscopic surgical procedure is performed under local or general anesthesia. The patient returns to normal activities within four days. The full recovery takes about four weeks. The surgery enlarges the natural opening to the sinuses without harming the tiny hair or cilia. The procedure removes areas of obstruction, resulting in the normal flow of mucus.

What can one do at home?

  • Home care for sinusitis helps open the sinuses.
  • Plenty of water and beverages such as hot tea are advocated.
  • Medicines to relieve pain
  • Steam inhalation as follows
  • Heat water in vessel
  • Remove it from the flame
  • Inhale the steam for about 10 minutes
  • Repeat 2-4 times a day